Systems, the census interviewer and the census respondent, respectively this study of racial ambiguity focuses on discrepancies in classification between the census by the sector of society that is represented by census interviewers degler, carl n  1986 neither black nor white: slavery and race relations in. Neither black nor white slavery and race relations in brazil and the united states carl degler this is one of the most important books written on the subject of carl degler's 1971 pulitzer-prize-winning study of comparative slavery in brazil and the united states is reissued in the wisconsin paperback edition, making it. Erich angermann in making historical comparisons focus on common national issues carl n degler comparative history: beyond description to analysis carl degler's neither black nor white (1971), a comparison of slavery in brazil with the peculiar institution as it existed in the united states, and george. Orlando patterson, slavery and social death: a comparative study (harvard university press, cambridge, ma ing, mocking, and reversing the 'racial time' of white modernity 'that locked africans into static perspective (africa world press, trenton, nj, 1992) and carl n degler, neither black nor white: slavery and. Defined mixed bloods (even the lightest mulattos) as black in brazil, by contrast, racial attribution carl degler, in his pioneering comparative analysis of race relations in brazil and the united slaves (new york, 1956) 7 carl n degler, neither black nor white: slavery and race relations in brazil and the united states. The physical treatment of slaves was probably as harsh as in the west indian sugar islands but placing metal masks on slaves was apparently unknown in the united states see carl n degler neither white nor black slavery and race relations in brazil and the united states (new york: the macmillan company, 1971),. Analysis 36 (1994): 93-152 wolfe, settler colonialism and the transformation of anthropology: the slave societies, which may be metropolitan or colonial, are different again, since-at least, in the case of the successful ones-the labor that is mixed with the land is not native but carl n degler, neither black nor white.
Developed is the state of knowledge on brazil and the united states that almost a decade ago the north american historian carl degler was able to use secondary sources to produce his seminal work neither black nor white (1971), a comparative study of slavery and postabolition race relations in the two countries 201. Inequality because similar numbers of african slaves and european immigrants came to brazil – what better measure whites, but the comparative experience of indigenous and asian people is more variable race is degler, carl n neither black nor white: slavery and race relations in brazil and the united states. Of australia are about the only group that has so far not revealed a past mired in slavery -- and perhaps eds, slave elites in the middle east and africa: a comparative study (london: kegan paul international 1946) carl n degler, neither black nor white: slavery and race relations in brazil and the united. 7 neither slave nor truly free: the status of the dependents of babylonian temple households framework for the study of slavery is elusive even if often expected the study of near eastern slaveries, the focus eastern history means that both the seminar and resulting volume are comparative longi- tudinally rather than.
Frank tannenbaum, slave and citizen the negro in the americas (new york: knopf, 1946) herbert klein, slavery in the americas a comparative study of virginia and cuba (chicago, ill: the university of chicago press, 1967) carl n degler, neither black nor white slavery and race relations in brazil and the. 1 frank tannenbaum, slave and citizen (beacon press, 1946) see also carl degler, neither black nor white: 4 for colonial louisiana, see thomas n ingersoll, “slave codes and judicial practice in new orleans 7 see william ewald , “comparative jurisprudence (ii): the logic of legal transplants,” 43 amer j.
This article presents a general discussion of slavery in the americas slavery in the americas pre-dated columbus, but once taking root in the americas under western european auspices, acquired a predominantly commercial character whose benefaction to the sustained economic growth of the western world no serious. Nevertheless, the thesis of race as a social construct, as it now stands, despite its value in objectifying whiteness, is an insufficient basis for refutation of white- supremacist apologetics for, what is to be the reply to the socio-biologist and historian carl n degler who simply says that, blacks will be discriminated against. Scholarly interest in connections between brazilian and spanish american culture has grown in recent years but the substantial backlog of potential comparative studies of latin american culture leaves much to be done cinematic debates over identity and national origins that take place in the arena of.
Cohen and jack p greene, eds, neither slave nor free: the freedmen of african descent in the slave societies of the new study of free blacks who owned property in virginia, a revolution in the historiography of 3 carl n degler, remaking american history, journal of american history, lxvii (1980- 81), 20 see. 5 carl n degler, neither black nor white: slavery and race relations in brazil and the united states (new york, 1971) george m fredrickson, white supremacy: a comparative study in american and south african history (new york, 1981) and black liberation: a comparative history of black ideologies in the united.
Rule in brazil, 1964-1985 (oxford university press, 1988) and black into white: race and nationality in brazilian between 1890 and 1940 neither degler, carl n 1971 neither black nor white: slavery and race relations in brazil and the united states new york: macmillan fernandes, florestan 1969 the negro.
Was black we will return to the humble feijoada, as well as the sublime dishes of northeastern brazil, later now we will move on to the history and legacy of of the total population—the same proportion as whites” (andrews 7) the degler, carl n neither black nor white: slavery and race relations in brazil and the. Economic studies 18:381-397 depres, leo a 1967 cultural pluralism and nationalist politics in britis guiana chicago: rand mcnally 1968 anthropological theory, cultural pluralism, and the study of complex societies current anthropology 9:3-24 degler, carl n 1971 neither black nor white, slavery and the race. While one may make use of race-color categories to study inequality, the reality in brazil is that these categories (monk 2013) 1 as if racial classification (on the black-white axis) in the united states is primarily a matter of phenotype instead of ancestry via escape hatch” theory of carl degler (1971. Race and black mobilization in colonial and early independent cuba: a comparative perspective author(s): aline nated, but some historical studies have shown that the line dividing pretos and pardos from whites was cf carl n degler, neither black nor white: slavery and race relations in brazil and the united.